One of the most curious details to emerge from a fresh look at the Etaples Mutiny of September 1917 is that notorious Socialist firebrand Victor Grayson arrived at the camp on the very day the riots kicked off. Grayson, who famously disappeared for good in 1920, had enlisted with the 1st Battalion Canterbury Infantry Regiment during a prolonged stay in New Zealand in November 1916. After basic training at Bulford Camp in Wiltshire his unit marched into the Etaples Reinforcement Camp on Sunday September 9th. It gets a glancing mention in David Clark’s biography, ‘Victor Grayson: The Man and the Mystery’ but it has never been explored in any significant detail. In fact for the most part, it’s been completely overlooked by historians on all sides of the political divide.
The question is not: did Victor Grayson play a part in the Etaples Mutiny? The question is whether or not Special Branch, spurred on by the appointment of ‘Bolshevikfinder General’, Joseph Ball to Head of B Division at Mi5, and in light of statements previously made by Grayson in support of troop rebellion, suspected that Grayson had played a part. And if Sir Basil Thomson and Special Branch were poised to act on those suspicions, did fear of impending arrest on charges of espionage or sedition relating to this and other episodes, contribute to Grayson’s decision to vanish?
Whilst accounts differ as to the exact nature of the riots at Etaples and the politics and resentments from which they sprang, mutineer and later Communist, James Cullen is adamant that a ‘small council of action’ led by Communist agitators within the troops assumed control of the mutiny as it entered its second phase.1 What is all the more intriguing is that it was these same Anzac units that Grayson was among that led the initial assault on the ‘Red Caps’, when Arthur ‘Jock’ Healy and a dozen or so men of the New Zealand Field Artillery rushed the police cordon on the bridges preventing re-entry from the local town. The men were subsequently apprehended and beaten as ‘deserters’ by the overzealous training camp ‘Red Caps’ (WO 95/4027/5).
By 5.00pm on Sunday September 9th, a sizeable crowd had gathered around the police guardroom. One of the New Zealand Sergeants came forward and demanded the release of Gunner Healy. Members of Healy’s family insist that the beating during his arrest was fairly ‘trivial’ by Etaples standards, and that scores of other soldiers had endured the same humiliating routine, quietly, if a little grudgingly. But this time, the response was very different.
As a result of a warning by a corporal in the 27th Base Infantry Depot that the New Zealanders intended raiding the police hut, Gunner Healy had already been released by the time the mob arrived, and the Sergeant was shown an empty cell. In spite of the foresight shown by the guards the mood of the crowd turned increasingly hostile; trouble was clearly being sought at all costs and more aggressive attempts were being made to rush the police guardroom. According to the Base Camp diary, the crowds in the vicinity of Three Arch Bridge and the Police Hut by early evening were some ‘3,000 – 4,000 strong’ (WO 95/4027/5).
As part of an effort to get to the bottom of the disturbances and stave-off further dangers, a special Board of Enquiry was set-up on the Tuesday to ‘collect evidence as to occurrences’ on the 9th. And inevitably, among the senior ranks, suspicion began to fall on agent provocateurs. In the eyes of military top brass, this wasn’t a spontaneous grassroots uprising, but an organized anti-war protest backed by German money.
In an entry dated September 12th Field Marshal General Haig notes in his diary that “men with revolutionary ideas” from “new drafts” had carried “red flags and refused to obey orders.” Much the same thing was repeated in a letter published in Sylvia Pankhurst’s revolutionary newspaper, Workers Dreadnought that November:
“We are being fed like whippets … It is something hellish. The men out here are fed up with the whole bloody lot … About four weeks ago about 10,000 men had a big racket in Etaples, and they cleared the place from one end to the other, and when the General asked what was wrong, they said they wanted the war stopped. That was never in the papers.” — Workers Dreadnought, November 3rd 1917 from an unsigned letter dated September 30th 1917
The incident set in motion a violent chain of events that saw a “seething mass of infuriated Kiwis” break the ‘Canary’ cordons and rampage through the town. In the words of R.H Mottram the men here swarmed ‘in motion like an ant-hill, in sound like a hive of bees’. By 7.30pm many of the Police had fled into Etaples itself. In his diary, General Thomson notes that a crowd of about 1,000 men had tried to break into the Savigne Cafe where several Police were in hiding. A private in the 4th Gordon Highlanders told the Aberdeen Press and Journal that at least one Red Cap had sought refuge in a hut down by the railway cutting, only to be forced to find sanctuary elsewhere after being stoned from above by a gang of angry Jocks. The ‘demeanor of the crowd was so threatening’ that practically all of the Camp Police had ‘disappeared’. They were simply ‘unable to cope’ (WO 95/4027/5).
In 1927, ex-serviceman James Cullen, one of the few men charged and sentenced as a result of the mutiny, told the Glasgow Weekly Herald that the ‘Bolshevists’ among the troops had keenly aware of the incendiary atmosphere. After the first of the disturbances, large bodies of men had broken through the piquets into town where they had held ‘noisy meetings’. As a result of the meetings, a small council of action was set-up with the ringleaders ‘giving their directions by under-channels’. Shortly after these meetings a ‘seditious’ leaflet had fallen into Cullen’s hands, bluntly asking the troops ‘to ground arms and stop the war’. ‘Let them fight their own bloody war’ it bayed. Resentments, which had been brewing for the best part of 12 months, were now at ‘fever pitch’. ‘All it wanted’, Cullen explains, ‘was a spark to cause a first rate explosion.’ 2 That spark came ‘when a corporal in the military police stationed at Etaples shot a Gordon Highlander.’ Cullen goes on to describe the event as being ‘the signal for a general outbreak by extremists’ (Glasgow Weekly Herald, February 1927).
The man shot was William.B Wood of the 4th Gordon Highlanders (No.240120), born in Pitsligo, Aberdeenshire to parents John and Rebecca Wood. He was shot in the head and died shortly after admission to hospital. A French woman standing in the Rue de Huguet was also hit by a bullet. The man doing all the shooting was Private Harry Reeve (No.204122), recently seconded to the Camp Police from the 10th Middlesex Regiment, and a champion boxer of the early 19th Century (WO 95/4027/5). His manager was Dan Sullivan, small-time boxing promoter and bookmaker deeply embroiled in the murky East End underworld, and working at this time for Bella and Dick Burge at The Ring at Blackfriars.
In the chaos that ensued, it appears that Reeve had snatched a gun from one of the New Zealanders, firing randomly above the heads of the crowd as the ‘seething mass’ of furious Anzacs taunted and jeered the Police who had dared to remain by the huts.
The shooting of Corporal Wood had become the flashpoint for rebellion.
It’s a curious story to say the least, and made all the more curious still when you learn that Harry’s uncle, Charles Reeve featured in the hysterical émigré cortège that swarmed around the infamous Whitechapel murders. The first murder had taken place with yards of the family’s home at 5 Thomas Street and as a direct response, Charles and the political firebrand, George Lusk had formed the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee from the activists and social champions that made up the International Working Men’s Educational Club. At the time of the murders the club was still on Berner Street, a favoured haunt among Whitechapel’s surly Russian exiles, and which in subsequent years at least, was more than casually frequented by the militant associates of a young Victor Grayson. At this time, however, it had the more lurid reputation for being the place where the third Ripper victim, Elizabeth Stride had been found. Club steward, Louis Diemschutz had driven his cart into the yard shortly after 1.00am on September the 30th and found the poor woman with blood still pouring from her neck. As Jonathan Moses rather blithely sums up in his essay, The Texture of Politics: London’s Anarchist Clubs, 1884 – 1914 the club consequently became subject of intrigue for a popular press ‘clamouring to connect lurid violence on the continent with the more prosaic realities of Britain’s domestic life’. The census of 1881 shows the Grayson family living at 10 Sydney Street in Poplar, just a twenty-minute walk away.
Over the course of four days, some 400 military foot and mounted police arrived to restore order, and reinforcements were drafted in from the Honourable Artillery Company and the unflinching Machine Gun Corps. As the largest troop transit camp in Northern France the threat to discipline was immense. Hundreds of men within the New Zealand and Scottish units were charged with military offences, dozens of men were charged with mutiny, and one man, Jesse Short, was executed. Many others received sentences of up to 10 years imprisonment. Just as in Petrograd, it was the Police that were the target of aggressions. The Officers, like those in Russia, were treated respectfully. Accounts of the Base Camp ‘faroany’ being hunted down the steep embankments and fleeing down to the River Canche are eerily reminiscent of the scenes played out in Palace Square:
We found the riotous crowd in a street near the bridge trying to break into a house where some military, police were believed to be sheltering. A plucky Scotch colonel forced his way to the doorway and spoke to the men, promising that the guilty policeman should be punished — Manchester Guardian, February 1930
When viewed against the fast moving changes emerging in Russia as a result of the February Revolution, the disturbances at Etaples (and among Russian troops at La Courtine, led by Jean Baltais and Klavdia Vavilov) make for very unsettling reading, and inevitably, certain questions arise. The first of these is likely to be obvious to anyone who has heard of Grayson, and one that almost certainly went through the heads of Military Intelligence in the immediate aftermath of the mutiny: did Victor Grayson — generally regarded as one of the best mob orators in Europe — have any foreknowledge of the riots and if he didn’t, what part, if any, did he play in the disturbances?
In the first of his series of four articles for the Glasgow Weekly Herald in the mid-1920s, mutineer James Cullen described how the paid-Communist agitator had to know “the psychology of the mob mind” and was taught ‘how to inflame his speeches with the catchwords and phraseology calculated to appeal to the down and out.’ And if anyone should know it was Cullen. In 1905 Cullen had been among the casualties of a British Collier ship when a mutiny broke out on the ‘Nikolif’ built Russian battleship, the Kniaz Potemkin in Odessa harbour. The mutineers, who had already murdered several of its officers by throwing them overboard, seized 2000 tons of coal before scuttling their own ship in shallow waters. Cullen was one of several British ship workers who had fled the ordeal as rebellion spread across the port, and spent the following six months in Russia. 3 It was only the intervention of the British Foreign office that got him out (FO 369/37/58, Kew).
If there is one thing that could be said without any uncertainty at all it was this; no one knew the psychology of the ‘mob mind’ better than Victor Grayson.
Just a few weeks prior to the riots Private John King, a soldier in Grayson’s Canterbury Regiment, had been executed by the firing squad for desertion. Absenteeism was nothing new and was usually met with nothing more serious than a week confined to barracks, but frequent and sustained desertion was something else, and the response, more often than not, was swift and brutal. There was also a parallel saga taking shape at home. Just a few months prior to Grayson enlisting, several of his Socialist associates in New Zealand, including Yorkshire ex-pat Mark Briggs and Archibald Baxter, made the headlines for refusing their conscription orders into New Zealand’s Expeditionary Force. Bundled into their regiments regardless, the treatment of the men was barbaric and carried out in full view of the troops.
Back in New Zealand, Briggs had been a senior figure within the Industrial Union of Workers at the Manawatu Flaxmill. Since 1911 the Union had become increasingly radical, supporting their affiliation with the ‘Red’ Federation of Labour – also known as the ‘Red Feds’. Adela Pankhurst, who campaigned tirelessly on Grayson’s behalf in the Colne Valley by-election of 1907, paid a visit to Briggs and the Manawatu Flaxmill in July 1916. It was just a few months after this meeting that Briggs and his associates refused their mobilization orders. By March 1917 and irrespective of their objections, Briggs and his men were escorted to barracks by force. What part Pankhurst played in their decision to refuse conscription isn’t known, but it is curious to think that such a close associate of Grayson’s had been among these men at such a critical stage in their lives.
It is also curious that Adela and her sister Sylvia Pankhurst had already come to the attention of Etaples Camp detective, Edwin T. Woodhall, who discusses his encounter with the women (and his encounter with Percy Toplis in the deserter camps around Etaples) in his 1929 book, Detective and Secret Service Days. His superior at Special Branch, Basil Thomson had also discovered that Adela and Sylvia Pankhurst had set up the People’s Russian Information Bureau on funds supplied by the Bolsheviks (Queer People, p.293). And her clandestine activities weren’t confined to the First World War either. In June 1941, just one week after Germany had invaded the Soviet Union, police had searched her house and confiscated a substantial volume of Japanese propaganda. Pankhurst had planned to distribute the material at meetings organised by the pro-fascist, Australia First Movement, as part of group’s ongoing offensive at the 1942 by-elections. In spite of being hastily ejected by the party for suspected espionage, Adela and twenty other members of the AFM were deemed too great a threat to National Security. In March 1942, they were arrested, charged and interned under Section 13 of the National Security Act. On March 30th, 1942, the Evening Post ran the headline, ‘Alleged Spy Ring’, sensationally lifting the lid on ‘seized documents’ plotting the ‘assassination of prominent people.’ (Australia’s Evening Post, Volume CXXXIII Issue 75).
It was a curious set of circumstances indeed, and made all the more curious by other developments.
In July and August 1917 Adela’s mother, the celebrated Suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst and Colne Valley-cum-Manchester activist, Jessie Kenney, were part of a small delegation of Labour and Suffrage supporters dispatched to Russia to meet provisional leader, Alexander Kerensky. Pankhurst Senior had been thrilled to see the overthrow of the oppressive Tsarist regime that February, but like many had viewed the Provisional Government as vulnerable. It was a largely self-funded mission, driven by the needs of publicity and marred by excessive hubris. Pankhurst had rushed across determined to help the women of Russia organize themselves and teach them how best to use the vote. That it had been the peasant women of Russia of who had got the revolution off the ground, when their protest in the Nevsky Prospect demanding an increase in rations for soldiers’ families sparked a violent confrontation with Police, had escaped the attention of Pankhurst, and her efforts went largely ignored.
In October 1917, just as attempts were being made to restore order at Etaples, New Zealand objector, Mark Briggs was taken from Bulford Camp in Wiltshire to the camp in Etaples and sentenced immediately to Field Punishment 1: the ‘crucifixion’.
Was Briggs part of a two-pronged Trojan plot to cause division within the ranks of the New Zealanders? Did this account for both Adele Pankhurst and Victor Grayson arriving in New Zealand within weeks of each other, just as they had arrived within months of each other in Australia in 1915? It’s unlikely, but not impossible.
Speculation about collusion may have been overlooked as a result of Grayson’s fanatical pro-war behaviour, which was seemingly at odds with Pankhurst’s equally belligerent activity in the opposing Women’s Peace Movement. But whilst I am no expert on the quirks of revolutionary thinking during this period, Grayson’s position and intentions may not be as straightforward as many might think.
The Lesser of Two Evils
There’s been a tendency among some writers and historians to frame Grayson’s jingoistic pro-War stance inside a treacherous and mercenary shift to populism and Conservatism; this is despite the fact that several prominent revolutionary leaders in Russia also backed the war including Alexander Kerensky (a member of the ‘Trudovik’ faction within the Socialist Revolutionary Party who played a key role in Russia’s February Revolution), Irakli Tsereteli and Georgi Plekhanov, generally considered to be the founder of Russian Marxism and one-time Lenin supporter. To understand this, you have to remember that at the beginning of the war, Germany had set out to seize significant parts of the Russian Empire. The Septemberprogramm as it became known, had been prepared by the German chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg and it is clear that territorial expansion had been Germany’s primary motive for war (huge territories in Western Russia had already been taken, including Congress-Poland, Lithuania and parts of Courland and western Volhynia). Revolutionaries like Kerensky and Plekhanov observed that successful revolution and change was less likely under Imperial Germany and they needed to push back its not inconsiderable eastern advance. To safeguard their own revolutionary interests, a significant proportion of Menshevik (‘majority’) faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party backed a military response to the ‘Prussianism’ of the Junker — Germany’s ruling military class. The remaining Bolshevik (‘minority’) faction withheld their support for the war on the basis that it was rooted in Imperialist Capitalism. The long and short of it? Opinion on the issue of war among Socialist and Labour supporters was as divided in Russia as it was in Britain.
The message to me at least seems simple: there is absolutely no reason to assume that Grayson’s pro-war belligerence is an indication he was losing interest in Revolution, quite the opposite; the pugnacious Social Chauvinism observed by Grayson and British Socialist, Henry Hyndman is likely to have been based on the preservation of a Revolutionary ideal, and not the rejection of one.
Revolutionaries like Plekhanov believed that German victory could be disastrous for the world’s proletariat. Siding with the bourgeoisie on the issue of defence was simply the lesser of two evils. Grayson might have had another reason for backing conscription; in Russia conscription and desertion among the country’s ‘peasant army’ had undermined the country’s war effort on several fronts, making the conditions ripe for revolution. There were food shortages in the towns due to the diminished labour force in the countryside (skilled and non-skilled men were in the army), and military transport and provisions congested the railway networks. These factors led to a rise in food prices which meant growing hardship for the workers, and inevitably this led to strikes. It may come as no surprise to learn that in the autumn of 1916 Grayson was reassuring his Socialist comrades in New Zealand that conscription, whilst unfavourable, would at least train men in the use of munitions and prepare them for the revolution that would almost certainly follow the war:
The men who have reaped the experiences of the trenches would come back trained to use guns and bayonets, and to act unitedly, and they would never again be satisfied with the old life of unemployment and want and hardship. They would make demands upon their governments … and knowing the value of organization they would be in a position to enforce their demands — Victor Grayson speaking to the Wellington Social Democratic Party, Maoriland Worker, Volume 7, Issue 293, 27 September 1916
It was not an isolated statement by any means. In September 1907, Victor Grayson had dangled a similar revolutionary carrot in Wigan. In a monologue that drew as much in the way of gasps as it did applause, Grayson told the crowd of Independent Labour Party members gathered at the Co-op Assembly Hall on Dorning Street, that he was looking forward to the time when the ordinary British soldier would ’emulate his brother of the National Guard of France, and when asked to turn his rifle on the people who are fighting for their rights’, would turn his rifle ‘in the other direction’. Grayson had no gripe with the Soldier. He was just another ‘poor wage slave who does his work for a shilling a day’. The ‘propaganda work’ that he and his comrades and carried out in the armed forces, Grayson continued, was ‘making Socialists there by the dozen’. Grayson had made no bones about the fact that when the ‘parlimentary game’ had been exhausted they would need ‘something unconstitutional to agitate the ponderous brains’ of British bureaucracy.
Grayson makes one thing abundantly clear: as far as the present war was concerned he was patriotic, but like his comrades Plekhanov and Tsereteli in Russia he felt the workers movement would have more opportunity to flourish under the allies than under ‘Prusso-German’ rule. Flooding the ranks with a readymade Socialist division would simply accelerate the process of any post-war coup d’etat.
In the words of one Tracy Chapman, Vic was still talkin’ ’bout a revolution. As he told the Wellington Social Democratic Party just one week previously: the workers had ‘the means and remedy in their own hands – organisation’. Whatever they did they must ‘organise, organise, organise.’ (Labour and the War, Evening Post, Volume XCII, Issue 70, 20 September 1916). His words were unususally prescient. Just months after making this speech, the mutinies that swept through the ranks of Russia’s Volynski and Pavlovski regiments played a decisive role its February Revolution, when significant numbers of the troops not only refused to fire on the rioting crowds, but turned their rifles instead on Police.
Several years before, in October 1909 Grayson had addressed 8,000 social democrats who had gathered in Trafalgar Square and made a ‘violent speech’ denouncing the execution of Catalan anarchist, Francesc Ferrer. According to the press, Grayson ‘advocated a life for a life’ before declaring that even if ‘the heads of every King in Europe were torn from their trunks tomorrow it would not pay half the price of Ferrer’s life’. (Star, Issue 9676, 19 October 1909). Attending that same demonstration was Naomi Ploschansky, James Dick and Fred Bower, a ‘Liverpool agitator comrade’ from Grayson’s early days in Liverpool.
Under the direction and inspiration of Ferrer, Dick and Bower had helped set up the Anarchist Communist Sunday School in Liverpool. Ploschansky set-up a sister school on Jubilee Street in the Whitechapel district of London (a venue used by Lenin, Trotsky and the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party just a few years previously). In 1909, just 12 months after its conception, the Liverpool school was moved to Beaumont Street in Toxteth, just minutes around the corner from Grayson’s mother on Northbrook Street. Ploschansky and his father returned to Russia in 1917 in time for the October Revolution.
Bower is an interesting character. Born in Boston but raised in Liverpool, the colourful ‘anarcho-syndicalist’ claims he campaigned on Grayson’s behalf in the final week of the Colne Valley by-election of 1907. In his 1936 autobiography, Rolling Stonemason, Bower describes meeting his “old towny” and having many “happy chats” that week. He also claims he was the first to inform the Pankhursts of Victor’s astonishing triumph at the polls. A red handkerchief was waved from an upstairs window in a house in Slaithwaite. It was the signal that they had won. Bower dashed around the corner to the four Pankhurst women who were waiting in a nearby car. According to Bower, the Pankhursts had “worked like Trojans” for the candidate for the full duration of the campaign. “It was a great day”, writes Bower, “and the hills resounded with the Red Flag”.
Bower was to meet Adela Pankhurst again when he visited Sydney shortly after the war. It was through Pankhurst that he was introduced to Bolshevik Consul, Peter Simonoff — Trotsky and Lenin’s newly appointed representative in Australia. Between 1918 and 1919 Simonoff had been observed entering the house of Ronald Graham Gordon, a member of several local patriot groups but later arrested as a German spy. Gordon, who claimed to have been born in Inverness in 1879, had been in the employment of Carl Frederick Muller, executed some years earlier for spying in Britain. It’s an extraordinary tale in itself, featuring deceptions as implausible as a secret printing press hidden inside an old piano, and mysterious war-time errands for Lord Kitchener. Gordon was deported to Germany but reappears in England in the mid-1930s teaching German to officers at Special Branch. In 1940 he was detained at Her Majesty’s Pleasure under Defence Regulation 18b under ‘hostile associations” and possible affiliation with Oswald Mosely’s British Union of Fascists. He was released in 1944 (see records HO 283/39 and also HO 45/25734 of the National Archives).
Fred Bower also claims to have been present at the murder of Australian MP, Percy Brookfield in March 1921. An old friend of Grayson and Bower’s days in Liverpool, Brookfield had become a confidant and friend of Consul Simonoff. Although Official Police Reports cite no political motivation behind the murder, Bower claims the killer, Russian émigré, Koorman Tomayoff had pictures of Lenin, Trotsky and Brookfield in his room. Simonoff subsequently married a New Zealander. In 1914 Bower told British reporters that he and not Tom Mann wrote the infamous, ‘Don’t Shoot: An Open Letter To British Soldiers’ pamphlet encouraging British troops to mutiny. Mann had been jailed in 1912 but released after seven weeks of public pressure. When Mann left for South Africa both Bower and Grayson were with him at the station when his train left Waterloo for the boat train to Southampton. According to Mann’s memoirs, there is some indication that Victor Grayson was very nearly arrested alongside Tom Mann (Tom Mann’s Memoirs, MacGibbon & Kee, 1967)
The Trafalgar demonstration wasn’t the only time Grayson showed he was prepared to endorse the use violence either. Shortly after his election to Parliament he told striking dock workers in Belfast that if they were attacked by soldiers or police they had every right to fight back using any means possible, including ‘broken bottles’. His old Labour associate from Liverpool, Jim Larkin, now leader of the Belfast Dockers Union, had managed to persuade 600 of the 1000-strong Royal Irish Constabulary to mutiny in support of the workers. Like Glasgow’s John Maclean, the revolutionary Socialist subsequently appointed by Bolshevik Consul in Scotland, Grayson had been invited to Belfast to witness first-hand the challenges faced by the striking workers. On his arrival in Belfast on August 8th, Larkin accompanied Grayson around streets ‘possessed by military’ looking for a few ‘bones to split’. Grayson told the Sheffield Daily Telegraph that at every street corner a ‘gang of them with fixed bayonets’ waited eagerly for the signal to charge.’ He had gone to some of the poorest areas of the city and saw the ‘wretched people huddled together’. Later in the evening Grayson addressed a meeting of carters and dockers, and laid down a challenge; either the military withdrew or the workers would be forced to ‘do their duty’ and respond. And according to the Londonderry Sentinel he ‘did not care how soon one side or the other made a start’.
A few days later on August 11th, within hours of Grayson of declaring that if the workers ‘had not the shrapnel to shoot, they had broken bottles to throw’, those same British troops shot dead two of the rioters and injured scores of others as the panicking authorities imposed in a state of martial law.
If Grayson could incite striking workers to sedition he’d have no trouble in inciting troops if the situation arose and the booze took its usual unruly hold of his judgement.4
But could replicating the social conditions in which revolution took root in Russia engender the same kind of change in Britain? I’m not so sure. Equipping men with guns and training them in combat may have changed the shape and scale of organized crime in the UK and US dramatically (especially when paired with prohibition), but there was little hope of it ever transforming your average milkman into a dangerous revolutionary. And if Victor Grayson thought it would, then his one-bottle-of-whisky-a-day drinking habit had clearly got the better of him.
If spite of Lenin’s opinion that the working class people of Great Britain were to ignorant and too disorganized for revolution, Special Branch took a more cautious view. In his 1922 book, Queer People, Sir Basil Thomson writes:
Bolshevism has been described as an infectious disease rather than a political creed a disease which spreads like a cancer, eating away the tissue of society until the whole mass disintegrates and falls into corruption … I noticed the same symptoms in a young policeman who was shouting, ‘Let’s have a revolution !’ during the police strike.
Thomson is only too aware of what a surfeit of ‘Bolshevik oratory’ and ‘bad alcohol’ can lead to, and it’s worth noting that on Grayson’s return from Etaples in January 1918, Thomson is believed to have tasked Maudy Gregory, an associate of Grayson, to keep a watchful eye on his movements. Victor Grayson, according to Thomson, was a ‘dangerous Communist revolutionary’ who would, before too long, either link up ‘with the Sinn Feiners or the Reds’.
Disturbances among New Zealand troops carried on well into 1920, when many of the men still at Bulford (known to New Zealand Army as the Anzac Camp and unofficially as ‘Sling’) felt they should be going home. 14 of the New Zealand conscientious objectors, including Mark Briggs and Archibald Baxter, had been housed at this camp and in 1919 significant numbers of the 4,600 of the New Zealand troops still awaiting demobilization at Sling Camp rioted. That so-called ‘Monocled Mutineer’, Percy Toplis turned up at the camp that same year could only ever only add to the intrigue, and the myths.
Grayson, Bottomley & A Mutiny That Never Was
Personally I’m not committing myself to any one theory. Some writers claim that Victor Grayson was working for British Intelligence and others that he was working for the Soviets or the Irish Secret Service. He may well have been working for all three of them but as long as police and security records on Grayson remain closed we are unlikely to know either way. He was a deeply secretive man and remained a mystery to many of his friends even in his own lifetime. That Grayson disappears within a month of Toplis being ambushed and killed in Penrith in 1920 grabbed my attention certainly, but it’s not proof they ever met, or that Toplis took part in the mutiny. That said, one of the most frequent visitors to Grayson’s house in the months before he vanished was Horatio Bottomley. And therein lies another tale.
Bottomley was the editor of John Bull and highly regarded as ‘Soldiers’ Friend’ and Bottomley, for what it’s worth, was in Etaples when the rioting broke out (he had campaigned for better conditions for troops throughout the war). John Fairley and Bill Allision, authors of The Monocled Mutineer go one further than this. They allege that Bottomley negotiated with camp officials on behalf of the troops when demands for camp improvements were served to Brigadier Thomson. It is a claim backed up by Etaples witness, A.B Newland Senior who says that Bottomley ‘took an active part in persuading the men to return to duty’. Whether he was given “complete control of the situation”, as some early rumours allege, isn’t known. The writers also allege the demands for camp improvements were served by Toplis himself. The diary of General Haig shows that Bottomley was in Etaples at the time and he had dinner with him on the 12th September to discuss the morale of the troops. Just 12 months after Grayson disappeared Bottomley was charged with War Bond fraud, spent 10 years in prison and died a penniless man in London 5.
On March 6th 1922, just two days before Bottomley was brought to Bow Street Police Court and charged, a letter by A.B Newland was printed in New Zealand’s Otago Daily Times. As a volunteer with the Church Army, Newland had witnessed the mutiny first-hand and asked why Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Stewart of the 1st Canterbury Infantry Regiment had failed to mention the mutiny in his official history of the New Zealand War effort that had been published that same year. The author of the letter even claimed to have a copy of the execution orders for Jesse Short, an event that was not confirmed officially by the MOD until the 1980s [ read letter ]. As it turns out, the author of the official history, Hugh Stewart, was Grayson’s commanding officer and had spent the years immediately prior to the war in Russia.  Newland’s claims were corroborated in a separate account in the Manchester Guardian dated February 1930. The Guardian article starts with an incendiary quote from war poet, R.H Mottram, whose book Three Personal Records of War had been published just weeks before:
The culmination of this period was that occurrence, chiefly disgraceful to writers about the war who appear to be in conspiracy to conceal it, the Mutiny at Etaples. All countries engaged in the war had periods of widespread mutiny, a fact which should be noticed and recorded, not hushed up … With the British it occurred … over some rumoured disagreement with the police. I never knew the truth and perhaps no one knows it — The Mutiny at Etaples: An Incident of 1917 Fighting Soldiers and Red Caps, Manchester Guardian, February 13 1930.
On the surface of things. it all looks a little suspicious; Etaples Camp Commander, General Thomson is removed from the base just a few weeks after the mutiny and is retired shortly after the armistice, suspected Mutineer, Percy Francis Toplis is gunned down in June 1920, Grayson disappears in September 1920 and Etaples ‘champion’, Horatio Bottomley is jailed little more than a year or so later. In the words of R.H Mottram the world did seem united ‘in a conspiracy to conceal it’. And the mysteries didn’t end there.
In 1970 journalist and former Naval Intelligence Officer, Donald McCormick unveiled a new witness in the Grayson mystery. The man was painter and naturalist, George Flemwell. On a rare visit to London from his new base in Switzerland, Flemwell claims to have seen his old friend, Victor Grayson on a motorized canoe on the Thames, some three days after his disappearance. According to Flemwell, Grayson was on his way to Ditton Island, a pedestrianized community at the centre of the river. Flemwell claims the boat had landed alongside a jetty belonging to Vanity Fair, a wonderfully decadent riverside bungalow owned by honours tout and bagman, Maundy Gregory. But this wasn’t the last time that Flemwell would appear in a McCormick mystery.
In his 1979 book, The British Connection: Russia’s Manipulation of British Individuals and Institutions, published under McCormick’s pseudonym, Richard Deacon, the same George Flemwell appears in a coded diary alleged to have been written by Arthur Cecil Pigou, suspected ‘Master Spy’ in the mysterious Cambridge Spy Ring. The quote from the diary reads: “Established communications with Piatnitsky via George Flemwell in Switzerland: this is permanent link by Verlet in Geneva.” Osip Piatnitsky was one of the Russian revolutionaries who attended the 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in London alongside Stalin and Lenin. Some 12-months after these talks were held, the venue that hosted the congress came under the supervision Reverend F.R Swan, one of the most trusted and committed campaigners in Grayson’s 1907 Colne Valley by-election.
The other loose-end relates to Grayson’s former commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Stewart of the 2nd Battalion Canterbury Regiment. Between the years 1908 and 1910, the Aberdeenshire-born Stewart had found himself lecturing in Russia. His association with Professor Tadeusz Stefan Zieliński at the University of St. Petersburg had stirred within him a craving to explore provincial Russia. Stewart, who had obtained at first in Classics at Cambridge in 1907, later described how every Englishman who went into Russia ‘felt the fascination of the country’. He saw them as the ‘Athenians of the modern world’ who possessed a ‘spiritual temperament’ totally at odds with the ‘deadness of modern Germany’.
During the ‘roughness of an unknown journey’ across its sprawling peasant wilderness, Stewart had discovered that the ‘poor, backward, ill-educated drunken’ stereotype was nothing more than a myth; Russia ‘had a soul’. Over the course of his immense travels he came to learn its language and its customs. His book recording his journey, ‘Provincial Russia’ was published in 1909 by A & C Black. His co-author, Sunday Times correspondent, George Dobson was subsequently arrested by the Cheka (Soviet secret police) on suspicion of spying for the British. The fact that Stewart enrolled at Cambridge University during the initial phase of ‘Fourth Man’ Pigou’s 60-year tenure there, may be little more than a coincidence, but the passion that both men shared for the Cambridge Mountaineering Society, the Swiss Alps and economics during those critical interwar years, makes it a tantalising proposition all the same. According to his biographer, Ernest Weekley, Stewart had remained in contact with the friends he’d made in Russia right up until his death, and one of his closest was Lydia Paschkoff, intrepid explorer, ardent feminist and confidant of Russian-German aristocrat, Madame Helena Blavatsky, suspected by the British in India of being a deeply resourceful, and dangerously charismatic spy.6
In 1934, on a roundtrip back from New Zealand, the 50 year old Stewart fell ill and died. He had set-off from Auckland on the cruise ship, the R.M.S Akaroa on September 14th and had fallen ill some three days later. An anonymous letter passed to the press from a fellow passenger had claimed his initial illness had not been serious. Reports of the time go on to describe Stewart as a man of ‘splendid physique’ who had left New Zealand ‘in apparently in the best of health’. The ship and its passengers had arrived at Pitcairn Island — home to the most famous mutiny of all, the Mutiny on the Bounty — when things took a turn for the worse. Within 10 days of being confined to his cabin Stewart was dead. Why he was buried at sea and not on Pitcairn Island is anyone’s guess, but needless to say it’s another deeply frustrating puzzle in an ever frustrating mystery.
What follows in the timeline below, is a fairly informal attempt showing Victor Grayson’s political rise and development alongside the revolutionary drama unfolding in Russia, and as seen through the eyes of the Secret Service, the MiS and Special Branch, whose response to subversive behaviour, both in the trenches and at home, was often nothing short of hysterical. In fact there may be an argument for saying that the seeds of the first ‘Red Scare’ in Britain were planted during and not after the war and are concomitant with anti-German hysteria, especially in view of Vladimir Lenin’s trans-Germany transit back to Russia in time for the October Revolution. The fact that the Bolsheviks’ return to Russia had been signed-off and financed at the highest level by German Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg himself — and without the complete understanding of the Kaiser — could only have added to the paranoia and confusion. The infamous Scisson Documents released shortly after the mutiny in 1918 took concerns to a whole new level. The 68-page collection of ‘secret documents’ obtained by Edgar Scisson alleged that Trotsky, Lenin, and the other Bolshevik revolutionaries were agents of the German government. Fakes the documents may have been, but in some Conservative quarters at least, there was certainly no shortage of faith in them.
The timeline is not an exhaustive account by any means and is clearly too narrow in scope for any serious analysis, but it’s hoped that it might provoke discussion at the very least. Or, as is more likely, further discussion may take Victor’s lead and simply vanish.
1 The British Lion, 20, July 1927.
2 This is no idle use of the word ‘spark’. It’s probably a reference to the pharse “Из искры возгорится пламя” (“From a spark a fire will flare up”) which became the motto of the revolutionary paper, Iskra, and for many years printed in London. The line was dedicated to revolutionary martyrs, the Decembrists in prison. The martyrs, incidentally, were composed of military personnel. Were the riots staged as a tribute to previous revolutions and intended to register at a symbolic as much as practical level?
September 1881: Victor Grayson is born in Liverpool. Just a few months previously the Grayson family had been living on Sidney Street in the Poplar district of London. In the late 1800s and early 1900s the area was home to the largest Russian émigré community in the UK. Lenin and Stalin would later hold their meetings in the area. The Grayson family itself is steeped in mystery, and much has been made about the true identity of Victor’s parents.
1884: International Working Men’s Educational Club is founded by the Socialist League on Berner Street, St George in the East and is quickly established as the base of Russian radicalism and anarchism in the UK. In 1886 it moves to Whitechapel where it features prominently in the infamous Ripper investigations. In 1906 it is forced to move to the Brotherhood Church on Jubilee Street, subsequently becoming known as the Jubilee Street Club. German anarcho-syndicalist Rudolf Rocker and Prince Kropotkin become key speakers at the club.
March 1898: Russian Social Democratic Labour Party is founded.
April 1902: Exiled from Russia Vladimir Lenin moves to London. It is here that he meets Russian Marxist Leon Trotsky. Continues production of political newspaper, Iskra (meaning ‘spark’). British Social Democrat activist Harry Quelch offers Lenin use of his office and printing press. In 1920 Quelch’s son Tom Quelch becomes founding member of the Communist Party of Great Britain (in 1905 Iskra falls under control of Georgi Plekhanov).
July 1903: Second Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Congress held in London in July 1903. Lenin, Plekhanov, Trotsky, Martov, Stalin and Rosa Luxemburg all in attendance. The RSDLP splits into Bolsheviks (‘the minority’) and Mensheviks (‘the majority’) as a result of disputes between Lenin and Martov over the definition of party membership. Locations include Three John’s Pub in Islington and the Jubilee Street Club in Whitechapel. London’s East End is favoured due to its substantial Russian population.
1904: Grayson becomes a neighbour of Suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst in Ancoats, Manchester. They are also members of the same Independent Labour Party branch in Central Manchester. He becomes a firm confidant of Pankhurst.
1905-1906: Glasgow shipworker (and later Etaples mutineer) James Cullen finds himself stranded in Odessa, Russia as a result of the 1905 shipyard strikes and mutinies.
March 1906: Victor Grayson and Christabel Pankhurst form the Manchester University Student Socialist Society. 40 students enrol. Grayson is elected Chariman and Pankhurst, Vice-Chairman. Treasurer Fred Marquis (subsequently 1st Earl of Woolton) was, like Grayson active in Social Work in Liverpool and an active member of the Unitarian Church.
December 1906: Adela Pankhurst charged and sentenced over assault in the House of Commons.
January – July 1907: Victor Grayson and Adela Pankhurst (daughter of Manchester Suffragette Emeline Pankhurst) become leading figures in the Manchester’s Independent Labour Party. Adela campaigns actively for Grayson in the Colne Valley. The Women’s Social and Political Union play a central role in his sensational victory when Grayson stands as Independent Socialist/Labour candidate in the Colne Valley (West Yorkshire) by-election.
January – July 1907: Minister F.R Swan steps down from his post as Congregationist Minister in Marsden, Colve Valley in order to campaign full-time for Grayson and the Social Democratic movement. He becomes one of the main supporting speakers.
June 1907: 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (ft. Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin and Plekhanov) takes place at Bruce Wallace and Reverend F. R. Swan’s Brotherhood Church in Southgate Road, Whitechapel. As we have seen above the former minister in Marsden, West Yorkshire, the Reverend F.R Swan (a Congregationalist Minister) played a key role in the election of Victor Grayson in the Colne Valley in the summer of 1907 (the Brotherhood Church was a Christian anarchist and pacifist community with roots in Yorkshire and Northern Ireland). German anarchist, Rudolf Rocker and Glasgow Communist and anarchist, Guy Aldred also play host to the Congress on Jubilee Street. The revolutionaries discuss bank robberies as a means of funding the revolution. The 1907 Tiflis bank robbery becomes the most famous of these robberies.
July 1907: Grayson is elected MP for the Colne Valley and moves to London.
Aug 1st – 3rd 1907: Liverpool’s James Larkin, now leading the striking dockers in Belfast invites Glasgow’s John Maclean, and his old Liverpool associates Fred Bower and Victor Grayson to address between 10,000 and 15,000 workers. Rumours persist that Larkin had managed to get 600 members of the 1000-strong Royal Irish Constabulary to support the strike with many men defying the orders of their officers (see: Sir James Sexton, Agitator: The Life of the Docker’s M.P & John Gray, City in Revolt). Some seven thousand troops were drafted in to contain the mutiny. That same year Maclean is introduced to Trotsky and Lenin associate, Peter Petroff who arrives in Edinburgh at the invitation of the Social Democratic Federation. Petroff remains in the UK and becomes a key figure on ‘Red Clydeside’. Grayson is savaged by the press for making a violence speech encouraging the striking Belfast workers to use broken glass against the troops and police.
September 1907: Emeleine Pankhurst resigns from Independent Labour Party to concentrate attentions on the WSPU.
September – Oct 1907: Russian Socialist Revolutionary Peter Petroff arrives in Scotland. He seeks the assistance of the Socialist Democtatic Federation as is provided housing in Glasgow by John Maclean. In the 1905 Revolution Petroff claims to have built a socialist organisation within the Tsarist Army in Southern Russia, taking part in an armed rising in Voronezh. He is made Vice-Commissar for Foreign Affairs by Lenin’s Bolshevik government on his return to Russia in 1918.
October – November 1907: Victor Grayson embarks on a series of talks in Paisley, Bonnybridge, Greenock and Glasgow.
December 1907: Grayson hosts lecture entitled ‘The Destiny of the Mob’ at Northgate Mansions Hall in Gloucester. The lecture is an attempt to breathe fresh life into the personality of socialism and relocate the individual at its spiritual centre. Grayson contends that Capitalism has depersonalised and dehumanized the individual. Modern capitalism “placed commodities above human life”. The more they consume us, he tells his audience, “the more we grow.” Even at this early stage it is clear that Grayson thinks that revolution could never flourish without first taking root in the hearts and minds of the bourgeoisie, placing him alongside the likes of Kerensky. He says that it was a fallacy that rich men could not be Socialists. Socialism was coming by the force of circumstances, the “irresistible trend of things”.
1908: Lenin and the Bolsheviks relocate to Paris but remain allied to the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
August 1908: Keir Hardie and Victor Grayson both cite ill-health and embark on a trip to Canada, touring both Montreal, Manitoba and Quebec. The trip is financed by Joseph Fels, a German-born philanthropist and friend of Peter Kropotkin and George Lansbury. Fels also sponsored the 1907 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, paying for the return trip of 300 or so of its delegates including Stalin and Lenin. Activist and Doukhobor leader, Peter Verigin had recently set up communities of exiles in the region. According to the diary of Charles ‘Leo’ Briggs, Grayson had visited Verigin’s friend, Vladmir Chertkov in Bournemouth with Briggs shortly after arriving at Owen College in Manchester. Fred Bower, an activist Grayson had known from his days in Liverpool, had arrived in Canada with a Doukhobor contingent just a few years earlier. Some of the group were charged with rioting and arson.
March 1909: Still an MP, Victor Grayson attends Labour Conference in Portsmouth. Endures rather comical ‘abduction’ by Conservative motorist making him late for his speech. The abduction had been planned by a retired Conservative Naval Officer. Grayson’s Liverpool comrade Fred Bower says Victor was going to talk about the need for Labour to adopt a more militant policy.
April 1909: Grayson writes, ‘The Case For Efficient National Defence’ in The Clarion after visiting Germany and witnessing first-hand its military build-up.
15th September 1909: Adela Pankhurst justifies violent militant tactics to Taranaki Herald (New Zealand) correspondent.
October 1909: Grayson addresses 8,000 social democrats in Trafalgar Square and makes a violent speech denouncing the execution of Catalan anarchist,
Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia. Henry Hyndman is also present. In the speech Grayson advocates a “life for a life” and declares that if the head of every king in Europe was torn from it’s trunk tomorrow, it would not pay half the price of Ferrer’s life. He says Ferrer’s death lies at the door of King Edward for failing to use his influence in Spain.
January 1910: Grayson loses his seat in the House of Commons.
February 1911: Victor Grayson is invited to the New Zealand Socialist Party’s April Conference in Dunedin (Mark Briggs attends).
August 1911: Formation of British Socialist Party. Grayson is described by the New Zealand Press as its ‘moving spirit’.
March 1912: Grayson becomes an active voice in the Miner’s and Dockers Strikes taking place in Cardiff and the Rhonnda Valley. Criticizes use of military force against striking workers. Condemns arrest of Trade Unionist Tom Mann.
November 1912: Victor Grayson marries Ruth Nightingale (actress Rith Norreys) in Chelsea. Ruth is the daughter John Webster Nightingale (b.1858 Chorlton), a Manchester-Bolton banker whose family have firm links to Lancashire’s Chartist and Nonconformity movements. Her grandfather is Jonathan Nightingale (b.1830) Blackburn. His birth is registered in the National Archive’s among the Non-Conformist Births and Baptism records. Ruth’s great uncle, Benjamin Nightingale was a radical minister whose work is mentioned in the writings of Elizabeth Gaskell (his book, Lancashire Nonconformity is published in 1890). The Nonconformity movement comprised of Presbyterians, Congregationalists and other Calvinist groups. The Nightingales appear to have made their money in Manchester’s Cotton & Textile Industry.
February 1913: Right-wing New Zealand Press report on Grayson and French Socialist efforts to ‘corrupt the army and navy’ should war be declared (they propose calling a general strike).
April 1913: Victor and Ruth Grayson arrive in New York in the midst of a major ‘Silk Strikes’ in New Jersey. His friends and hosts are among the fiercest supporters of the strikes. In an interview with the New York Times Grayson says that murder would be justified during the strikes. In the same interview Ruth describes herself as a ‘militant suffragette’ who believes that women in England are ‘justified in burning houses and raising Cain generally”. She believes that “anything is justifiable.”
April 1913: Grayson visits pro-war Socialists Samuel George Hobson (Cardiff/Bristol) and William English Walling (Kentucky, US). They are associates of the pro-Conscription Henry Hyndman and US Russian-Jewish exiles Sergius Ingerman and Boris Reinstein both now active in the Socialist Labour Party of America. Reinstein took control of the US Passaic Weavers strike of 1912 and the ongoing New Jersey Silk strike. In October 1917 Reinstein returns to Russia and is made Head of Propaganda by Vladimir Lenin. Sergius Ingerman stays in America and founds the New York Plekhanov Group. Plekhanov was one of the leading revolutionaries who like Grayson backed the war in the name of ‘defense of the revolution’ and ‘national defence’. Mensheviks like Plekhanov and Tsereteli were advocates of Social-Chauvinism and believed their vision of revolution was not viable under German triumph. They backed the Revolutionaries’ Second International but not the Comintern (Third International) of 1919. At the end of their stay in America Ruth Grayson tells reporters, “The only people I found worthwhile (here) were the Russian Jews. I liked them.”
May 1913: Writing in Pravda Vladimir Lenin describes Grayson as “a very fiery socialist, but one not strong in principles and given to phrase-mongering.” (Pravda, No. 109, 14 May 1913)
March 9th 1914: Grayson delivers violent revolutionary speech in London. “You must fight capitalism with every possible weapon. If they shoot you down you must get ready to shoot them.”
May 1914: Grayson’s Colne Valley campaigner Adela Pankhurst arrives in Melbourne, Australia.
July 1914: Lenin opposes outbreaks World War One as an ‘imperialist conflict’ and calls for proletariat soldiers to mutiny.
17th July 1914: Grayson election campaigner, Adela Pankhurst arrives in Sydney, Australia at the initiation of E. J. Kavanagh and the New South Wales Labour Council. Reinforces case for militancy. Quickly drafted into the Women’s Peace Army led by Suffragette, Vida Goldstein. Here she embarks on an ‘anti-recruitment’ drive (part of the anti-Conscription League’).
July 1914: Grayson is dispatched by Manchester ‘Umpire’ newspaper (later ‘Empire News’) to France as War Correspondent. It is not backed by the war office.
August 1914: Grayson commissions private plane and flies above trenches and beyond enemy lines. On landing back in France he arrested as a German Spy as a result of Police concerns about his requisite papers. The charges are later dropped.
September 1914: Poor health sees Grayson return to England where he engages in recruitment campaigns.
June 1915: Victor Grayson arrives in Australia on what is believed to have been a pro-war recruitment drive. Sails from London on the SS Orontes (the troopship alleged to have ferried Toplis away from to India before any mutiny happened).
September 1915: Ruth Grayson lands job with Allan Wilkie’s Shakespearean Touring Company. Wilkie receives a CBE in in May 1925 for services to the British Empire.
October 1915: Founder of the British Labour Movement and anti-War campaigner Keir Hardie dies. Grayson at one time regarded Hardie as friend and inspiration.
March 1916: New Zealand Christian Socialist and Pacifist Archibald Baxter makes the New Zealand news when he and several of his associates refuse conscription to the New Zealand Defence Force.
April 26th 1916: New Zealand Returned Soldiers’ Association is founded. Victor’s Grayson’s commanding officer serves as President of the Association between 1924 and 1926.
July 1916: Grayson makes career-changing pro-War speech onboard the Orontes in Australia (the ship that Toplis is alleged to have been on at the time of the Etaples Mutiny).
July 1916: Grayson Colne Valley campaigner, Adela Pankhurst arrives in New Zealand for a series of lectures in Wellington, Auckland, Hamilton and a mass meeting at the Manawatu Flaxworker’s Union – chaired by subsequent pacifist and Conscientious Objector, Mark Briggs.
August 1916: Grayson arrives (and stays) in New Zealand. He is accompanied by his wife Ruth Nightingale (actress Ruth Norreys) as part of Wilkie’s Shakespearean Company. The boat they are sailing on nearly sinks.
August 26th 1916: Frank Hughes of New Zealand’s Canterbury Infantry Regiment shot for serial desertion and refusing to obey orders.
September 1916: Grayson gives lecture at Wellington’s Alexandra Hall entitled, ‘The Coming Revolution‘. He says a social revolution must first take root in the press and religions of the world. This is followed by ‘The Altar of Mammon‘ at an address made at the Socialist Party HQ in Christchurch.
September 1916: Delivers second lecture at Wellington’s Alexandra Hall on behalf of the Social Democratic Party entitled, ‘The War and the Labour Movement’. Attempts create a plausible context for Socialists to back the war.
September 1916: In an interview with the Maoriland Worker, Grayson offers a revealing insight into his pro-Conscription efforts, “the present war would achieve an epoch-making revolution … possibly resulting in the overthrow of capitalism itself”. He claims men would come back from the war “trained to use guns and bayonets and act unitedly”. The men, he goes on, would ‘reap the experiences of the trenches.” His basic premise is that the British proletariat would never be able to go back and accept the terms of their oppression.
October 29th 1916: Conditions at Etaples Camp continue to deteriorate. Private Jack Braithwaite (described as a Bohemian Journalist) serving with the 2nd Battalion of the Otago Regiment of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force is shot for mutiny. Three other New Zealand privates have their sentences commuted. In total five New Zealand soldiers were executed during the war, two from Grayson’s Canterbury Regiment.
November 8th 1916: Adela Pankhurst is back in New Zealand for series of talks in Katamatite.
November 1916: The New Zealand Attoney General calls Grayson a ‘mischievous fanatic’.
November 1916: Writing in the Lyttelton Times, Victor Grayson explains reason for his decision to enlist and his complete change of heart about the war and conscription: ” I have joined the army and hope to fight because the Prusso-Germans, because I believe that my ideals stand the best chance of realisation under a British regime … I hate war and I hate killing. yet if I account for the vassals of the world’s mad dog, I shall have ‘done my bit’ towards the world’s regeneration.”
November 28th 1916: Grayson enlists with New Zealand’s 1st Battalion Canterbury Regiment. Leaves Wellington in March 1917 and completes basic training at Sling Camp in Wiltshire, England. The Canterbury Regiment’s Aberdeenshire-born, Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Stewart (and author of the official history of the New Zealand war effort) spent the period before the war teaching in Russian schools and had learned the Russian language. He was the son of Presbyterian minister, John Stewart and Margaret Mackintosh. In his Official History of the New Zealand Division published in 1922 Stewart is accused of hushing-up the mutiny that broke out in Etaples. Stewart subsequently wrote several books on Russia including ‘Provincial Russia’ and ‘Russia’ (with Sunday Times correspondent, George Dobson and Dutch-French painter and draughtsman, Frederic de Haenen). Both books were published by Adam & Charles Black (owned by the politically active, Adam Black of Edinburgh and Soho whose friend Walter Berry had already been imprisoned for writing a ‘seditious’ pamphlet). Stewart’s co-author, George Dobson was arrested by the Cheka (Soviet secret police) in August 1918 on suspicion of spying for the British. British Naval attaché, Francis Cromie died defending the British Embassy that same year.
November 1916: Grayson gets cold shouldered by the Australian Labour Movement for supporting Conscription.
March 14th 1917: Grayson Colne Valley campaigner, Adela Pankhurst severs her connection with Australian Peace Movement to focus on organising work for the Socialist Party in Australia.
March 1917 – Russia’s February Revolution. Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and formation of Russian Provisional Government. Mitigating factors include hunger riots, industrial riots and mass desertions among Russian troops. February Revolution still dominated by capitalist stakeholders and supported by many nobles. Socialists had the support of troops and mutiny was a critical factor. Provisional Government and leading members of the Menshevik vow to continue war with Germany.
March 1917: Manawatu Flaxworker’s Union leader and Pankhurst associate, Mark Briggs is arrested by civilian police. Briggs and his fellow objectors are imprisoned first in Wellington, then at Treantham, Sling Camp (Bulford, Wiltshire) before relocation to Etaples Camp. Their status as Conscientious Objectors is not recognised by the military and their treatment is severe.
March 26th 1917: Victor Grayson and his regiment leave Wellington New Zealand for basic training in the UK.
April 1917: German authorities grant Vladimir Lenin passage through Germany to Russia in a sealed railway car. Germany believes the return of the anti-war Lenin to Russia will undermine the Russian war effort.
April 1917: Baxter and his co-defendants (described by the press as ‘recalcitrant reservists’) are tried by court martial in Wellington, New Zealand for refusing orders. They are sentenced to 84 days imprisonment with hard labour and then sent back to camp.
June 3rd 1917: As a direct response to Russia’s February Revolution, a Labour and Socialist Convention is held in Leeds. Over 1500 delegates from the Socialist Democratic parties including British Socialist Party, the ILP and Women’s Organisations attend convention that creates a Council of Workers’ and Soldiers’ (it is welcomed by the Russian Soldiers and Worker’s Deputies and a R.A.M.C unit). Basil Thomson of Special Branch says it was “resolved to divide Great Britain into Soviets to the ominous number of thirteen.” This was a reference to the thirteen elected conveners: H. Alexander, Charles G. Ammon, W.C. Anderson, M.P., C. Despard, E.C. Fairchild, J. Fineberg, F.W. Jowett, M.P., George Lansbury, J. Ramsay Macdonald, MP., Tom Quelch, Robert Smillie, Philip Snowden, MP., and Robert Williams. The Council folds after just six months as a result of disagreements over the October Revolution.
June 24th 1917: Men awaiting demobilization within the Royal Sussex, Middlesex, Royal West Kent and Buffs regiments declare a branch of the Soldiers and Workmen’s Council. The authorities view it as an attempt to create a Soviet and the movement fails to gain traction with other regiments.
July 1917: Men of Russia’s First Expeditionary Brigade begin to rebel openly against the Russian High Command at La Courtine Camp. About 9,000 men refuse to fight and set up their own camp-based ‘Soviet Republic’. The situation in Russia remains dangerously unpredictable and the Bolshevik movement is gaining traction.
26th July 1917: Grayson and the 1st Battalion Canterbury Regiment arrive in Devonport, England and are marched into Sling Camp (Bulford Camp) in England to complete basic training.
August 1917: Adela Pankhurst arrested during a march against rising food prices in Melbourne. Sentenced to one month in prison.
August 1917: Adela’s mother, Emmeline Pankhurst meets Alexander Kerensky, the provisional Justice Minister in Russia. Kerensky played a key role in the Russia’s February Revolution (he leads the moderate Trudoviks faction of the Socialist Revolutionary Party). Between March and October 1917 Kerensky serves as Minister of Justice in Russia’s Provisional Government. Britain are eager to keep the Russians in the War.
August 19th 1917: Private John King of New Zealand’s Canterbury Infantry Regiment is executed for desertion by firing squad.
September 5th 1917: Victor Grayson and his Canterbury Infantry Regiment complete basic training at Sling Camp (Bulford) and leave for France.
September 9th 1917: Victor Grayson and the Canterbury Infantry Regiment arrive at the Reinforcement Camp at Etaples.
September 9th 1917: Etaples Mutiny breaks out (New Zealand and Australian troops take leading role in riots). Disturbances mitigated by vicious beating of Arthur John (‘Jock’) Healy – a bugler within New Zealand’s Field Artillery (b. 1896). Service records show regular disciplinary action taken by Military Police and periods of ‘rest’ in hospital.
September 10th 1917: Etaples soldiers set out demands for improvements to camp conditions (access to town in particular)
September 11th 1917: Small delegation of Etaples soldiers (alleged to have included Percy Toplis) seek support of ‘Soldier’s Champion’ Horatio Bottomley who edits the John Bull newspaper. By chance he is staying at the Hotel des Voyagers in Etaples at the time of the incident. Bottomley writes on October 6th how he sets out their complaints: “Leave, Pay, Field Punishment, Military Policing, Short Rations and Cushy Posts”.
September 12th 1917: General Haig’s diary records that he meets Bottomley for lunch. An entry on the same describes the events at Etaples: “The AG reported some disturbances which have occurred at Etaples, due to some men of new drafts with revolutionary ideas who produced red flags and refused to obey orders. The ring leaders have been arrested, and the others sent to their units at the front.” Did these ‘new drafts’ include Grayson’s Canterbury Regiment?
Mutineer James Cullen (sentences to one year, suspended) later writes: “I was approached by a prominent Communist agitator, who asked me what part I would take in getting the troops to mutiny. There was a small council of action set up and we set about doing everything possible to get a general rising… the councils of action, of which I was one, were giving instructions through under channels. The revolt lasted three days, at the end of which a truce was come to between the General Officer Commanding and the rebel troops. I was one who refused point blank to recognise the truce and carried on with a small band of irresponsibles. Eventually we tried to rush the guard one night, but were repulsed. I was captured and made a prisoner.”
September 12th 1917 (same day) A headline in New Zealand’s The Maoriland Worker reads: “The Great Australian Revolt”. It relates the story and persecution of Adela Pankhurst and the ‘mighty working class revolt’ (Maoriland Worker, Volume 8, Issue 342, 12 September 1917).
September 12th – September 16th 1917: Demands for camp improvements are granted: the removal of the Assistant Provost Marshall (Captain Strachan) and the ‘Red Caps’, the cancelling of out-of-bounds orders, a modification of the Bull Ring (training ground) ‘torture’ and the assurance that no man was to be court-martialled for taking part in the mutiny.
September 16th 1917: In France loyal Russian troops battle mutinous Russian troops who have taken arms with the Bolsheviks. Over twenty Russian troops are killed (it subsequently becomes known as the massacre of La Courtine).
September 18th 1917: Etaples mutineer Arthur ‘Jock’ Healy admitted to Etaples General Hospital (there is no mention in his service records of any disciplinary action being taken against Healy for any role played in the mutiny).
September 22nd 1917: Grayson and the 1st Battalion Canterbury Regiment ordered to the front.
September 22nd 1917: Yorkshire-born objector Mark Briggs marched into Sling Camp (the same New Zealand Army base at Bulford in Wiltshire where Grayson completed his training)
September 1917: Britain’s 74 Chinese Labour Corps in Boulogne go on rampage. A total of 27 unarmed strikers are shot dead, 39 are wounded and 25 are taken prisoner.
October 1st: Mutineer Arthur ‘Jock’ Healy moved from Etaples to a hospital in London England.
October 4th: Etaples Mutineer Jesse Robert Short of the 24 Northumberland Fusiliers, executed by firing squad.
October 6th 1917: New Zealand Conscientious Objector, Mark Briggs arrives in Etaples from Sling Camp (Bulford) and is immediately sentenced to Field Punishment 1: the ‘crucifixion’ – loosely tied to a pole and forced into a hanging position. His torture is ordered by Lieutenant Colonel George Mitchell, generally thought to have helped restore order at the camp in the aftermath of the mutiny. Officers quiz Briggs about his Socialist ‘tendencies’.
October 15th 1917: Victor Grayson is wounded at Passchendaele. Admitted to 9th General Hospital (wound to the left hip). Medical notes say condition made worse by years of alcoholism (1 bottle of whisky a day) and epileptic seizures since 1911.
October 23rd 1917: Etaples Mutineer James Cullen in detention awaiting trial for mutiny. His sentence is suspended and he is sent to the front.
October 29th 1917: Grayson is transferred to No.1 New Zealand General Hospital in Brockenhurst, England.
November 7th 1917: The October Revolution in Russia. Lenin’s Bolshevik-led Red Guards remove the Provisional Government and proclaim soviet rule. Tsar Nicholas III and his family are executed in July 1918.
November 1917: New Zealand Conscientious Objector Archibald Baxter and 13 other detainees leave New Zealand aboard the troopship Waitemata bound for Cape Town on 14 July 1917, imprisoned in the ship’s lockup. They are stripped and put into uniform.
January 8th 1918: Baxter arrives at Sling Camp (Bulford Camp, Wiltshire) after measles outbreak in Cape Town.
January 26th 1918: Military Police warrant issued on Etaples mutineer Arthur John Healy for absentee journey to Edinburgh.
January 28th 1918: New Zealand conscientious objector Archibald Baxter arrives in Etaples. The camp is now under the control of Sling Camp’s Lieutenant Colonel George ‘Hoppy’ Mitchell. The official explanation is that it is to relieve overcrowding at the detention camp at Sling/Bulford, but there are some indications that it was to provide the correct legal framework to mete out more severe punishment.
January 1918: Grayson is discharged from military service as medically unfit. On his return to England he seeks (but is not offered) a financial arrangement with the National War Aims Committee to campaign on their behalf.
Februay 1918: Ruth Grayson gives birth prematurely and dies.
February 18th 1918: Bolsheviks appoint Maxim Litvinovas their Consul in England. John Maclean is appointed Bolshevik Consul in Glasgow. Maclean is subsequently imprisoned for sedition (inciting other Socialists to begin a revolution by seizing the city’s town hall, its banks and post offices). Money is said to have been funnelled to Maclean through bank accounts belonging to Litvinovas (Bolshevik Pay For Agitators, Hawera & Normanby Star, Volume LXXIV, Issue 0, 19 December 1918)
February 1918: Attempted mutiny breaks out on two Imperial Russian ships docked in Liverpool (the Poryv and the Razsvet). Voices are heard crying, ‘Shoot the officers’).
February 1918: Victor Grayson is drafted into trade unionist, Havelock Wilson’s Merchant Seamen’s League. He undertakes active campaigning in Glasgow and ‘Red Clydeside’.
February 1918: Basil Thomson, Head of Special Branch asks impresario Maundy Gregory to keep an eye on Grayson.
April 1918: Grayson provides detailed account of his month-long military career and injury in the Daily Mail.
April 1918: Grayson suddenly withdraws completely from public life, and his attachment to Wilson is severed. He does not feature in Wilson’s plans again.
August 30 1918: Major Police strike in England. 12,000 officers go on strike. Sir Basil Thomson believes it to be economic and not revolutionary in nature.
September 1918: Etaples Mutineer Arthur ‘Jock’ Healy discharged as a result of diagnosed heart murmur (New Zealand’s Department of Internal Affairs records his death as 1966 in Blenheim). Healy went on to serve with the New Zealand Home Guard and as Engine Driver in World War II.
June-November 1918: Grayson moves to Bury Street in London’s St James Palace. Maundy Gregory and Etaples Soldier’s Champion, Horatio Bottomley become Grayson’s most frequent visitors.
November 1918 & March 1919: Riots break out among New Zealand Troops at the Sling Camp (Bulford). Grayson’s old regiment, the Canterbury Regiment is involved. The giant Bulford Kiwi is carved out of the hillside as a way of restoring order and discipline. Transport issues and the influenza pandemic mean that the last group of New Zealand soldiers do not arrive home until May 1920.
January 1919: National Union of Ex-Servicemen (NUX) is founded in London by ‘Victor Grayson mystery’ witness, John Beckett and Ernest Mander, a worker at the ‘Ministry of Munitions’ in London who moves to New Zealand in 1920.
January 10th 1919: Military riots break out in Folkestone. Disturbances breal out at other camps. The slow demobilization process is blamed.
January 1919: Bolshevik violinist, Eduard Sõrmus schedules UK tour to coincide with Sylvia’s ‘Hands of Russia’ meeting at Albert Hall in March.
Janaury 31st 1919: Battle of George Square. Glasgow and Clydeside area is scene of intense riots as 60,000 demonstrators battle with Police. Troops are called in as Churchill’s fears of a Bolshevik revolution take hold. Subsequently referred to as Black Friday. James Cullen associate, William Gallacher is arrested. Maclean’s Red Clydeside Movement is judged to be behind it.
1919: New Zealand Maoriland Worker writer, Edward Hunter (aka. Billy Banjo) returns to Glasgow. The former secretary of the Huntly branch of the New Zealand Socialist Party and Grayson supporter has already been charged with sedition and is blacklisted on the coalfields of New Zealand. As brother-in-law of Scottish Socialist and Labour MP James C. Welsh he enjoys an active role in Clydeside Politics and Political theatre.
March 1919: Special Branch report signs of co-operation between ex-servicemen’s The Sailors’, Soldiers’, and Airmen’s Union and extreme Labour organisations.
August 1919: Percy Toplis re-enlists under his own name in the RASC. He is based at Bulford Camp alongside the remaining New Zealand units (Sling).
April 1920: Still at Bulford, Toplis is charged and sentenced (in absentia) over the murder of taxi driver George Spicer. Another Bulford Soldier, Harry Fallows is arrested. He says he played no part in the murder of Spicer but had accompanied Toplis on a ‘joyride’ to Cardiff and Swansea in the aftermath murder. Toplis makes his way to Bala in Monmouthshire, South Wales, just a few short miles from the home of executed mutineer, Jess Short. He heads back to London and then Scotland.
1920: Adela Pankhurst becomes founding member of the Communist Party of Australia.
June 1920: So-called mutineer Percy Toplis ambushed and killed in Penrith.
1920 – : Glasgow mutineer James Cullen becomes a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain, and is later offered a place as speaker in Havelock Wilson’s Industrial Peace Union alongside Adela Pankhurst and Tom Walsh. Like Cullen, Pankhurst eventually moves across to the right and forms the Australia First Movement in 1941.
March 1920: ‘Hands Off Russia’ campaign successful in holding strikes. London dockers refuse to load munitions onto ships to support Poland’s fight against Russia. Anti-communist Intelligence community grows concerned about government’s failure to contain British Bolshevism. To support efforts, Joseph Ball is recruited as Mi5’s Head of B Division: the Counter-Espionage Unit.
September 1920: Victor Grayson disappears, never to be seen again.
September 28th 1920: Painter George Flemwell now based in Switzerland claims that on a rare visit to England on September 28th he spots his old friend Victor Grayson entering ‘Vanity Fair’ — a bungalow on Ditton Island in the Thames owned by Maundy Gregory. According to former Sunday Times journalist and one time Fleming associate, Donald McCormick, the same George Flemwell appears in a coded diary entry by suspected Cambridge Spy Ring Master, Arthur Cecil Pigou. The quote from the diary reads: “Established communications with Piatnitsky via George Flemwell in Switzerland: this is permanent link by Verlet in Geneva.” Osip Piatnitsky was one of the Russian revolutionaries who attended the 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in London alongside Stalin and Lenin. Their host, Reverend F.R Swan was one of Grayson’s most committed campaigners in the 1907 Colne Valley by-election. The existence of the diary cannot be confirmed.
May 1922: Etaples champion and Grayson visitor, Horatio Bottomley is arrested and charged with fraud. He served 5 years and died penniless in 1933.
January 1st 1927: Toplis’ Bulford accomplice Harry Fallows is found dead in mysterious circumstances in a cave in Derbyshire. He had been living in Manchester and dating a girl called Marjorie Coe Stewart of Mayne Fabric Company in Salford. The girl is also found dead in the cave. Their death comes just a few months after the end of the Great Strike.
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Londonderry Sentinel, 08 August 1907
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Stalin and Lenin’s forgotten London hangouts, Daily Telegraph, Hugh Morris
Conspirator: Lenin in Exile, Helen Rappaport
Lenin in London: Memorial Places, trans. Jane Sayer
William J. Fishman, East End Jewish Radicals, 1875-1914
The untold story of the man who started the Great War mutiny, Arthur Whelan
Hugh Stewart (1884-1934): Some Memories of His Friends and Colleagues, Ernest Weekley
Churchill’s Secret Enemy, Jonathan Pile
The Spanish Farm Trilogy 1914-1918, R. H. Mottram
Petrograd 1917, Caught in the Revolution: Helen Rappaport, 2016
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